recalled a disproportionately high use of cellphones, while others recalled disproportionately low exposure. What if we moved the studies from humans to animals? When our eye responds to a visual cue, glucose metabolism in the brain increases much more dramatically and, surely, we do not think that visual stimulation causes cancer. Decades before Doll and Hills elaborate studies on tobacco smokers in London, an Argentine biologist, Angel Roffo, painted rabbits with a grey-black solution containing distilled cigarette tar and demonstrated that the smoky residue caused cancer. But it is possible for something to be a carcinogen without directly damaging DNA. David Reynards claim was rejected in the spring of 1995, three years after it was originally filed. Our vision of carcinogenesis has become vastly more complex since 1853. The case group and the control group were asked the same questions, including essays about working in groups how much and how often they smoked. There are certainly methods in epidemiology to counteract the biases created by selective memory: Interphone researchers could have initially identified a cohort of high-volume cellphone users and of nonusers, and followed them over time to determine who developed or did not develop cancer. These devices use radio frequency technology to transmit and receive communications. It is more like solving an epic detective case, with individual pieces of evidence that, taken together, suggest a common culprit.
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Extensive in vitro studies have found no consistent evidence of DNA damage potential, but in vitro studies assessing the epigenetic potential of RF energy are limited. But as the 16th-century physician Paracelsus reminds us, It is the dose that makes the poison. The final, definitive trials on phone radiation may settle this issue but, as of now, the evidence remains far from convincing. But what if we make an age adjustment for the population and shrink or expand the cancer incidence to match the changes in age structure? Several cancers are strongly, often exponentially, age-dependent. The crudest method to capture a carcinogens imprint in a real human population is a large-scale population survey. Indeed, 10 men and women with brain tumors (but none of the controls) recalled 12 hours or more of use every day a number that stretches credibility. A patients memory of his or her past is a particularly charged and malleable thing; burned into David Reynards memory, poignantly, is the shape of the cellphone in his wifes hand and the imprint of the cancer on her brain. Typically, it is not the failure of memory that produces this bias, but its hyperactivity its desire to explain the uncertainty of the present with the certainty of the past.
Needless to say, it is biologically implausible that these results are simultaneously true: how can regular cellphone use protect against cancer while frequent phone use increases risk? How did a womans memory of her diet compare with the actual diet that she recorded before her cancer diagnosis?
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