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It was technologically advanced and innovative, but with uncompromisingly utilitarian unconventional looks, and deceptively simple inspired bodywork, that belied the sheer quality of its underlying engineering.
It was designed to move the French peasantry on from horses and carts.
It is considered one of Citroën's most cars.
In 1953 Autocar in a technical review of the car wrote of "the extraordinary ingenuity of this design, which is undoubtedly the most original since the Model T Ford".
It was described by CAR magazine journalist and author LJK Setright as "the most intelligent application of minimalism ever to succeed as a car".
It was designed for low cost, simplicity of use, versatility, reliability, and off-road driving.
For this it had a light, easily serviceable engine, extremely soft long travel suspension with adjustable ride heighthigh ground clearance, and for oversized loads a car-wide canvas which until 1960 also covered the boot.
During a production run of 42 years between 1948 and 1990, 3,872,583 2CVs were produced, plus 1,246,306 Fourgonnettes small 2CV delivery vansas source as spawning mechanically identical vehicles including the — 1,840,396; the visit web page 1,444,583; the — 253,393; and the — 144,953, a grand total of 8,756,688.
From 1988 onwards, production took place in Portugal rather than in France.
This arrangement lasted for two years until 2CV production halted.
Portuguese built cars, especially those from when production was winding down, have a reputation in the UK for being much less well made and more prone to corrosion than those made in France.
Paradoxically the Portuguese plant was more up-to-date than the one in Levallois, and Portuguese 2CV manufacturing was to higher quality standards.
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May 2008 The 2CV belongs to a short list of vehicles introduced in the middle of the 20th century that remained relevant and competitive for many decades, such as the,and.
The 2CV was produced for some 42 years with minimal design changes.
Pierre-Jules Boulanger Pre-war Citroën 2CV prototype TPV prototypes, showing a water-cooled engine Unrestored TPV, side view A market research survey was conducted in the 1930s by Jacques Duclos.
At that time, France had a very large rural population which could not yet afford automobiles.
The car would use no more than 3 L of to travel 100 km 78.
Most famously, it would be able to drive across a ploughed field without breaking the eggs it was carrying.
This brief was submitted to Pierre-Jules Boulanger, the vice-president of Citroën and chief of the Engineering and Design department.
Boulanger placed engineer André Lefèbvre in charge of the TPV Toute Petite Voiture — "Very Small Car" project.
Boulanger later had the roof raised to allow him to drive while wearing a hat.
By 1939 the TPV was deemed ready, and several had been built.
Those prototypes made use of and parts and had water-cooled flat twin engines with front-wheel drive.
The seats were hammocks hung from the roof by wires.
The suspension system used front leading arms and rear trailing arms, connected to eight torsion bars mounted beneath the rear seat: a bar for the front axle, one for the rear axle, an intermediate bar for of 9 blackjack rule side, and an overload bar for each side.
The front axle was connected to its torsion bars by cable.
The overload bar only came into play, when the car had three people on board, two in the front and one in the rear, to take account of the extra load of the fourth passenger and fifty kilos of luggage.
During the German occupation of France in World War II Boulanger refused to collaborate personally with German authorities and organized and encouraged sabotage against production for the German war effort to the point where the Gestapo listed him as an important "enemy of the Reich".
Several TPVs were buried at secret locations; one was disguised as a pickup, the others were destroyed, and Boulanger had the next six years to think about further improvements.
Until 1994, when three TPVs were discovered in a barn, it was believed that only two prototypes had survived.
As of 2003, five TPVs are known.
For a long time, it was believed that the project was so well hidden that all the prototypes had been lost at the end of the war.
It seems that none of the hidden TPVs were lost after the war, but in the 1950s an internal memo ordered them to be scrapped.
The surviving TPVs were, in fact, hidden from the top management by some workers who were sensitive to their historical value.
After the war, internal reports at Citroën showed that producing the TPV would not be economically viable, given the rising cost of aluminium in the post-war economy.
A decision was made to replace most of the aluminium parts with parts.
Other changes included most notably an air-cooled engine, new seats, and a restyling of the body by the Italian Flaminio Bertoni.
It took three years for Citroën to rework the TPV, resulting in the car being nicknamed the "Toujours Pas Vue" Still Not Seen by the press.
Citroën finally unveiled the car at the Paris Salon on October 7, 1948.
The car on display was nearly identical to the that would be sold the next year, but it lacked an electric starter, the addition of which was decided the day before the opening of the Salon.
The car was heavily criticised by the motoring press and became the butt of French comedians for a short while.
One American motoring journalist quipped, "Does it come with a can opener?
Nevertheless, Citroën were flooded with orders at the show, and it had a great impact on the low-income segment of the population in France.
At that time a second-hand 2CV was more expensive than a new one because the buyer did not have to wait.
Production was increased from four units per day in 1949 to 400 units blackjack double down pulling tractor day in 1950.
Grudging respect began to emanate from the international press: towards the end of 1951 the opinion appeared in Germany's recently launched Auto Motor und Sport magazine that despite its "ugliness and primitiveness" "Häßlichkeit und Primitivität"the 2CV was a "highly interesting" "hochinteressantes" car.
In 1951 Citroën introduced the 2CV Fourgonnette van.
The "Weekend" version of the van had collapsible, removable rear seating and rear side windows, enabling a tradesman to use it as a family vehicle at the weekend as well as for business in the week.
This was the fore-runner of the and people carriers introduced in the 1990s.
A pick-up truck version was used by the British Royal Navy for pioneering Royal Marine helicopter carrier amphibious operations aboard HMS Bulwark and Albion in the late 1950s and early 1960s, because of the payload limitations of their first large helicopters.
An 80s 2CV6 Special One-off Charleston style colour scheme in green A special version of the 2CV was the Sahara for very difficult off-road driving, built from December 1960-1971.
This had an extra engine mounted in the rear compartment and both front and rear wheel traction.
Only 694 Saharas were built.
The target markets for this car were French oil companies, the military, and the police.
In 1960 the 2CV was updated, and looked similar until the end of production.
In particular the corrugated style "ripple bonnet" of convex swages was replaced except for the Saharawith one using six larger concave swages.
The 1960s were the heyday of the 2CV, when production finally caught up with demand.
In 1967 Citroën launched a new model based on the 2CV chassis, with an updated but still utilitarian body, with a hatchback that boosted practicality: the.
see more was in response to the direct competition by thethat had used so many stolen design ideas from the 2CV and Traction Avant that Citroën contemplated legal action at the time of its launch.
Similarly, Volkswagen had had to pay damages to Hans Ledwinka over the Beetle in the 1960s.
At the same time, Citroën developed the.
The purchase price of the 2CV was always very low.
In Germany in the 1960s, for example, it cost about half as much as a.
In 1970, the engine size was increased to 602 cc 36.
All 2CVs from this date can run on unleaded fuel.
The highest annual production was in 1974.
Sales of the 2CV were reinvigorated by the.
The 2CV after this time became more of a youth lifestyle statement than a basic functional form of transport.
This renewed popularity was encouraged by the Citroën "Raid" intercontinental endurance rallies of the 1970s where customers could participate by buying a new 2CV, fitted with a ruggedising kit to cope with thousands of miles of very poor or off-road routes.
The Paris to Persepolis rally was the most famous.
In 1981 a bright yellow 2CV was driven by James Bond in the film For Your Eyes Only, including an elaborate set piece car chase through a Spanish olive farm, in which Bond uses the unique abilities of the modestly powered 2CV to escape his pursuers in.
The car in the film was fitted with the engine from a for slightly more power.
Citroën launched a special edition 2CV "007" to coincide with the 2CV product placement in the film, it was fitted with the standard flat-2 engine, painted in yellow with "007" on the front doors and fake bullet hole stickers.
This car was also popular in miniature, from Corgi Toys.
The Dolly used the "Spécial" models most basic trim rather than the slightly better-appointed "Club" as was the case with the other special editions.
The changes between the special editions and the basic "Spécial" base model, that was also continued until the end of productionwere only a different speedometer, paint, stickers, seat fabric, internal door handles, and interior light.
Many of the "special edition" interior trim items were carry-overs from the 1970s "Club" models.
Citroën probably gained former VW customers as the only other "retro alternative" economy car style of vehicle, thewas withdrawn from the European market in 1978, special order only from Mexico in the 1980swhen it ceased production in West Germany.
Citroën 2CV Bamboo Picture of 2CV Perrier needed Export markets 1950s Citroën 2CV, Fürstenfeld Castle 2007 Bavaria Citroën 2CV with front "Suicide Doors", post-1960 bonnet, and oversized factory protective bumpers in Buenos Aires, Argentina 1970s Argentinian 3CV hatchback The 2CV was mainly sold in France and some European markets.
During the post-war years Citroën was very focused on the home market, which had some unusual quirks, like puissance fiscale.
The management of was supportive of Citroën up to a point, and with a suspension designed to use Michelin's new the Citroën cars clearly demonstrated their superiority over their competitors' tyres.
But they were not prepared to initiate the investment needed for the 2CV or the for that matter to truly compete on the global stage.
Citroën was always under-capitalised until the 1970s Peugeot takeover.
Consequently, the 2CV suffered a similar fate to the andselling fewer than 10 million units, at 8,830,679 of all 2CV based vehicles, whereas thewhich was available worldwide, sold 21 million units.
Some of the early models were built at Citroën's plant in Slough, England from 1953.
Until then British Construction and Use Regulations made cars with inboard front brakes such as the 2CV illegal.
Producing the car in Britain allowed Citroen to circumvent trade barriers and to sell cars in the British Empire and Commonwealth.
It achieved some success in these markets, to the extent that all Slough-built 2CVs were fitted with improved air cleaners and other modifications to suit the rough conditions found in Australia and Africa, where the 2CV's durability and good ride quality over rough roads attracted buyers.
The 2CV sold poorly in Great Britain in part due to its excessive cost because of import duties on components.
Sales of Slough-produced 2CVs ended in 1960.
In 1959, trying to boost sales, Citroën introduced a glass-fibre coupé version called the that was briefly produced at Slough.
Styling of this little car was by Peter Kirwan-Taylor better known for his work with Colin Chapman ofbut it proved to be too heavy for the diminutive 425 cc 25.
It served to use up remaining 2CV parts at Slough in the early 1960s.
In 1975, the 2CV was re-introduced to the British market in the wake of the oil crisis.
These were produced in France but avoided the crippling import duties of the 1950s, because the UK was by then a member of the EEC.
In the 1980s the best foreign markets for the 2CV were the UK and Germany.
Only a few thousand 2CVs were sold in North America when they were new; as in England their pricing was excessive relative to competitors.
The original model that produced just 9 hp 6.
Citroën was marketed as a luxury brand after the launch of the mid-1950s in North America, and the importers did not actively promote the 2CV, as doing so would undermine the brand image.
Unlike larger Citroëns, there are no legal issues with owning a 2CV; the car is effectively a restored pre-1968 vehicle.
A rare -esque derivative, called the after an tribe, was made in Chile between 1972 and 1973.
After thethere were 200 Yagáns left that were used by the Army to patrol the streets and the Peruvian border, with 106 mm 4.
A similar car was sold in some west African countries as the Citroën "Baby-brousse".
Inthe Citroën 2CV was called the Jian.
The cars were originally manufactured in Iran in a joint venture between Citroën and up until thewhen Iran National was nationalised, which continued producing the Jian without the involvement of Citroën.
The 2CV was built in Chile and Argentina for South America.
The 1953 Citroneta model of the 2CV made in Chile and Argentina used a type AZ chassis with 425 cc engine developing 12 bhp 8.
Both chassis and engine were made in France while the 'three box' bodywork in both 2- and 4-door versions was designed and produced in Chile.
It was the first economy car on the market in Chile.
The 1970s Chilean version mounted a 602 cc engine with an output of 33 hp 25 kWand was designated as the AX-330.
It was built between 1970 and 1978, during which it saw changes like different bumpers, a hard roof, front disc brakes, and square headlights.
A derivation called the "3CV" was built in Argentina with various modifications such as a hatchback.
Citroën had produced more than https://sellingonthenet.info/blackjack/blackjack-card-count-app.html cars in Argentina by 1977; production ended in 1979.
A 2CV with a heavily modified front end called the 3CV IES America was produced well into the 1980s, by an Argentinian company that bought the rights and factory from Citroën.
The 1981 James Bond movie For Your Eyes Only caused a surge in sales of the car in Chile where it was specially imported from Spain to meet demand mostly in yellowsince it had already been phased out on the Chilean assembly line.
In 1985, Citroën drew up plans with the to manufacture the 2CV in India for the rural market, as well as spares for export.
However, the Indian government rejected this scheme as it would have resulted in blackjack double index numbers deck for in which they held a stake.
Construction The level of technology in the 1948 2CV was remarkable for a car of any price in that era, let alone one of the cheapest cars on the planet.
While colours and detail specifications were modified in the ensuing 42 years, the biggest mechanical change was the addition of front in blackjack double down pulling tractor from the discontinuedfor the 1982 model year.
All 2CVs have flap-up windows: roll up windows were considered too heavy and expensive in 1948, and the design did not allow any update.
Because the original design brief called for a low speed car, little or no attention was paid to.
The result was that the body had a Cd of a high 0.
The Suspension of the 2CV was almost comically soft; a person could easily rock the car side to side dramatically back and forth was quite a bit more resistant.
It was designed by Alphonse Forceau.
Inside the cylinders are two springs, one for each wheel, mounted at each end of the cylinder.
The springs are connected to the front leading swinging arm and rear trailing swinging arm, that act like bellcranks by pull rods tie rods.
These are connected to spring seating cups in the middle of the cylinder, each spring being compressed independently, against the ends of the cylinder.
It is mounted using an additional set of springs, originally made from steel, called "volute" springs, but on later models made from rubber.
These springs allow the front and rear suspension to interconnect.
This also compresses the front "volute" spring pulling the whole cylinder forwards.
That action pushes the rear wheel down on the same side via the rear spring assembly and pull rod.
When the rear wheel meets that bump a moment later, it does the same in reverse, keeping the car level front to rear.
When both springs are compressed on one side when travelling around a bend, or front and rear wheels hit bumps simultaneously, the equal and opposite forces applied to the front and rear spring assemblies reduce the interconnection significantly, or even completely.
This stiffens the suspension after a certain amount of body roll has been achieved.
It allows the 2CV to have very soft "bump mode" absorption, without wallow or uncontrolled float.
It also reduces pitching.
A larger than conventional steering castor angle, ensures that the front wheels are closer to vertical than the rears, when cornering hard with a lot of body roll.
All this provides excellent road holding, while appearing to look like a softly sprung American car with poor handling and road holding because of poor body control.
The other with recommended blackjack bankroll right! factor in the quality of its road holding is the very low and forward centre of gravity, provided by the position of the engine and transmission.
Because the rear brakes were outboard, they had extra tuned mass dampers to damp wheel bounce from the extra unsprung mass.
The uprated hydraulic damping obviated the need for the rear inertia dampers.
It should be noted that only dampers designed to be able to work horizontally should be used as replacements.
Some that will physically fit do not work properly horizontally.
This sophisticated suspension design ensured the road wheels followed ground contours underneath them closely, while insulating the vehicle from shocks, enabling the 2CV to be driven over a ploughed field as its design brief required.
More blackjack double down pulling tractor it could comfortably and safely drive at reasonable speed, along the ill-maintained and war-damaged post war French Routes Nationales.
It was commonly driven 'Pied au Plancher' - 'foot to the floor' by their peasant owners.
The 2CV suspension was assessed by Alec Issigonis and Alex Moulton in the mid-1950s according to an interview by Moulton with CAR magazine in the late 1990s ; this inspired them to design the suspension system for the andto try to keep the benefits of the 2CV system but with added roll stiffness in a simplified design.
The 2CV was originally equipped with a sliding splined joint, and twin Hookes type universal https://sellingonthenet.info/blackjack/blackjack-machines-odds.html on its driveshafts; later models used constant velocity joints and a sliding splined joint.
The Gearbox was a 4-speed manual transmission, an advanced feature on an inexpensive car at the time.
Boulanger had originally insisted on no more than three gears, because he believed that with four the car would be perceived as complex to drive by customers.
Thus, the fourth gear was marketed as anthis is why on the early cars the "4" was replaced by "S" for surmultipliée.
The gear shifter came horizontally out of the dashboard with the handle curved upwards.
It had a strange shift pattern: the first was back on the left, the second and third were inline, and the fourth or the S could be engaged only by turning the lever to the right from the third.
Reverse was opposite first.
Although this may seem an odd layout, it is in fact logical.
The idea is to put most used gears opposite each other: for parking, first and reverse; for normal driving, second and third.
This layout was adopted from the H-van's 3-speed gearbox.
In keeping with the ultra-utilitarian and rural design brief, the roof could be rolled completely open.
The Type A had oneand like the black Ford Model T was available only in one colour, grey.
Blue was offered in 1959, then yellow in 1960.
The were powered by a purely mechanical system: a cable connected to the transmission; to reduce cost, this cable also powered the speedometer.
The wipers' speed was therefore dependent on car speed.
When the car was waiting at a crossroad, the wipers were not powered; thus, a handle under the speedometer allowed them to be operated by hand.
Although this system was far from perfect, it was better than some 1950s British Ford economy cars that had wipers powered by inlet manifold vacuum, that ran at full speed at engine idle, but slowed down to a crawl when cruising at speed.
From 1962, the wipers were powered by a single speed electric motor.
The reliability of the car was increased by the fact that, being air-cooled with an oil coolerit had no coolant, radiator, water pump or.
It had no either, just a contact breaker system.
Except for the all hydraulic brakes, there were no hydraulic parts on original models as damping was by tuned mass dampers and friction dampers.
On later models the mass dampers and friction dampers were replaced by conventional shock absorbers.
Early models used a combination of steel pipes and flexible rubber hoses in the braking system.
Later 2CV used only steel pipe in the hydraulic braking system; no flexible rubber hoses were used.
The front inboard brakes were fixed to the gearbox and did not move with the wheels, while the rear brake pipe was coiled multiple times around the rear trailing-arm mounting tube to absorb suspension movement.
This allowed cheaper and lighter assembly, greater reliability and a solid feel at the brake pedal.
online blackjack free bet 2CV6 engine compartment, post-1981 with inboard disc brakes 2CV Ignition System Diagram Movement of flat-twin engine pistons, connecting rods and crankshaft - click to animate.
The engine was designed by and Lucien Gerard, with a nod to the classic "boxer" engine it is reported that Becchia dismantled the engine of the BMW motorcycle of Flaminio Bertoni before designing the 2CV is blackjack split what />It was an air-cooled,four-stroke, 375 engine with pushrod operated and a hemispherical combustion chamber.
The notoriously underpowered earliest model developed only 9 6.
A 425 cc engine was introduced in 1955, followed in 1968 by a 602 cc one giving 28 bhp 21 kW at 7000 rpm.
With the 602 cc engine, the tax classification of the car changed so that it became in fact a 3CV, but the commercial name remained unchanged.
A 435 cc engine was introduced at the same time in replacement of the 425 cc; the 435 cc engine car was christened 2CV 4 while the 602 cc took the name 2CV 6 although a variant did take the name 3CV in Argentina.
The 602 cc engine evolved to the M28 33 bhp 25 kW in 1970; this was the most powerful engine fitted to the 2CV.
A new 602 cc giving only 29 bhp 22 kW at a slower 5750 rpm was introduced in 1979.
Despite being less powerful, this engine was more efficient, allowing lower fuel consumption and better top speed, at the price of decreased acceleration.
All 2CVs with the M28 engine can run on unleaded petrol, but attention is this web page to ensure that valve clearances are maintained.
The 2CV used the for both simplicity and reliability and had only speed-controlled ignition timing, no vacuum advance taking account of engine load.
Unlike other air-cooled cars such as the and the the 2CV's engine had for simplicity and reliability no valve fitted to its oil system to allow the oil to reach normal operating temperature quickly in cold weather.
All the oil in the system passed through an oil cooler mounted behind the fan and received the full cooling effect regardless of the ambient temperature.
This removes the risk of overheating from a jammed thermostat that can afflict water and air-cooled engines and the engine can withstand many hours of running under heavy load at high engine speeds even in hot weather.
To prevent the engine running cool in cold weather and to improve the output of the cabin heater all 2CVs were supplied with a grille blinds canvas on early cars and a clip-on plastic item on later ones which blocked around half the grille aperture to reduce the flow of cool air to the engine.
The engine's design concentrated on the reduction of moving parts.
The and were built integrally with the one-pieceremoving the need for.
Late models shown in photo used an alternator mounted high above the engine, to keep it dry, run with a drive belt.
Instead of using the usual two-piece crankone-piece items were pressed onto the crankshaft with a hydraulic press once the crankshaft had been submerged in liquid to cause it to contract thus providing enough clearance to press the bearings on.
yelp blackjack camshaft drive gears incorporate a spring-loaded split gear, to reduce the effects of gear wear and backlash on valve timing and ignition timing.
With the contact breaker in a housing on the end of the crankshaft there was no separate jackshaft to be affected by chain or gear wear and associated backlash.
The use ofseen as another potential weak point for failure and leaks, was also kept to a minimum.
The are mated to the cylinder barrels by a lapped joints with extremely fine tolerances as are the two halves of the and other surface-to-surface joints.
These design features made the 2CV engine highly reliable; test engines were run at full speed for 1000 hours at a time, equivalent to driving 80,000 km 50,000 mi at full throttle.
They also meant that the engine was very much "sealed for life" — the main bearings, for example, could not be replaced individually; the entire crankshaft had to be replaced.
However, the engine is very under-stressed and long-lived, so this is not a major issue.
Until the 1960s it was common for other car manufacturers' engines to need full strip downs and rebuilds at as little as 80,000 km 50,000 mi intervals; un-rebuilt 2CV engines are still running that are passing 400,000 km 250,000 mi.
If the starter motor or battery failed, the 2CV had the option of hand-cranking, the jack handle serving as starting handle through on the front of the crankshaft at the centre of the fan.
This feature, once universal on cars and still common in 1948 when the 2CV was introduced, was kept until the end of production in 1990.
The jack handle also served as the wheelbrace and could be used to remove the nuts that held the front wings on - part of the car's design to facilitate easy maintenance.
Performance 1955 2CV When asked about the 2CVs performance and acceleration, many owners said it went "from 0—60 in one day".
Others jokingly said they "had to make an appointment to merge onto an ".
For all this talk of modest performance data, the trick to driving a flat-twin A-Series Citroen was and remains the prudent exploitation of momentum.
Any 2CV fitted with a motor of 435cc or more was quite capable of keeping pace with the traffic of the day in most conditions.
On occasion this demanded faith in the remarkable ability of the car to remain on its wheels while cornering and an ability to resist the urge to brake.
At almost any revs in overdrive top or third, a corner could be negotiated by changing down, controlling the understeer on the throttle and hanging on.
The last evolution of the 2CV engine was the flat-2, a 652 cc featuring electronic ignition.
Citroën never sold this engine in the 2CV, but some enthusiasts have converted their 2CVs to 652 engines, or even transplanted or GSA flat 4 engines and gearboxes.
Cars with the flat-4 engines and subtle bodywork changes so blackjack double down pulling tractor appear to be standard are known as "Sidewinders" in the UK.
In the mid-1980s CAR magazine editor Steve Cropley ran a turbocharged 602 cc 2CV that was developed by engineer Richard Wilsher.
Expeditions The 2CV has also been used for travel around the world.
In 1958—1959, two young Frenchmen, Jean-Claude Baudot and Jacques Séguéla started at the Paris Motor Show on October 9, 1958; headed south and crossed the Mediterranean Sea by boat from Port Vendres to Origin of name blackjack traversed the African continent and crossed the South Atlantic from Cape Town to Rio de Janeiro; criss-crossed South America and the United States; and boated from San Francisco, California to Yokohama.
They returned to Paris on November 11, 1959.
During the 13 months, they drove 100,000 kilometres, and consumed 5000 litres of petrol and 36 tyres.
Citroën promoted 2CV events called "Raids" in the 1970s, for which main dealers would supply a ruggedising kit.
Paris to Persepolis in Iran blackjack double down pulling tractor the best known.
Nicknames DIY paintwork was often seen on the 2CV Unrestored 1960 2CV daily driver in 2003 Champs-Elysées, Paris, 2009 Popular French nicknames were "Deuche" and "Dedeuche".
The Dutch were the first to call it "het lelijke eendje" "the ugly duckling" or just "Eend" "duck"while the Flemish called it "de geit" "the goat".
In German-speaking countries, it is called "Ente" "duck".
English nicknames include "Tin Snail", "Dolly" and "Upside-down pram".
In the former Yugoslavia, the car read article called " spaček" pronounced tips to help win, Slovene for "little freak".
In Spanish-speaking countries, they were nicknamed "dos caballos" two horses"citrola", "citruca", "cirila", "la rana" the frog and derived from "Citroën" were called "citroneta" and "la cabra" the goat.
In Denmark, the car has many names like "Gyngehest" Rocking horse or "Studenter-Jaguar" student's Jaguar while amongst 2CV enthusiasts the cars are affectionately called "De kære små" the dear small ones.
In Finland, the 2CV is known as "Rättisitikka" Finnish for "rag Citroën" because of its canvas roof.
In Swedish at least in the Swedish-speaking areas of Finlandit's called "Lingonplockare" since the looks are similar to a device for picking lingonberries.
In Tunisia, they call blackjack double down pulling tractor "karkassa".
Hungarians call it "Kacsa" pronounced "kacha" and meaning "duck".
In Israel, it was called "פחנוע" pronounced "pah-noa", meaning "tin car" and in Iceland it was named "Sítróen braggi" meaning "Citroën Quonset hut".
In Norway, the name was "Jernseng", meaning "iron bed".
American cartoonist Gilbert Shelton referred to it as the "duh-shuh-vuh", referring to the French pronunciation of "2CV".
In Ireland it was noticed as the underdog or íochtarán or it was either called bucket of rust or Buicéad na meirge.
This was because most imported cars at the time that come to Ireland would've to wait at the pier or harbour for at least for 3—12 months and especially in Westport, County Mayo where it is well known for its constant rain as the 2cv was very prone to corrosion.
Outside France, the 2CV's most common nickname today is "The Duck", which seemed to be endorsed by Citroën which released a stuffed toy animal in the 1980s representing a duck with Citroën on its side and 2CV under its right foot.
End of Production The 2CV was produced for 42 years, the model finally succumbing to customer demands for speed, in which this ancient design had fallen significantly behind modern cars, and safety, can mensa guide to blackjack think it was better than article source generally realised.
The front of the chassis was designed to fold up, to form a crumple zone according to a 1984 Citroën brochure.
It was rated as comparable free game to safety, with contemporary 1980s small cars, that are all very poor by modern standardsby Which?
The drive for improved crash worthiness in Europe has happened from the 1990s onwards, and accelerated with the 1997 advent of Euro NCAP.
Its advanced underlying engineering was ignored or misunderstood, by the public, being clothed in an ultra basic anachronistic body.
It was the butt of many a joke, especially by Jasper Carrott.
It was not helped by Citroën failing to promote it after the mid-80s and by falling quality standards.
The car was viewed as an embarrassment by Citroën, and they tried to kill the model for several years before the end came.
Citroën had attempted to replace the ultra-utilitarian 2CV several times with the, and the ; however its comically antiquated appearance became an advantage to the car and it became a niche product which sold because it was different from anything else on sale.
Because of its down-to-earth style, it became popular with people who wanted to distance themselves from mainstream consumerism — "hippies" — and also with environmentalists.
Although not a replacement for the 2CV, thea conventional urban runabout, unremarkable apart from its exceptional lightness, seemed to address the automaker's requirements at the entry level in the early 1990s.
In 1988 production ceased in France but was continued in Portugal.
The last official 2CV, a Charleston with chassis number 08KA 4813 PT which was reserved for the Mangualde plant manager Claude Hebert, rolled off the Portuguese production line on July 27, 1990.
But during the following week, five additional 2CV Special vehicles left the plant; three of their number one blue, one white with chassis number KA 372168 fitted for a 1991 series that also never materialized, one red for exhibition at the French "Mondial de l'Automobile" in Paris, October 1990 but this project was later cancelled.
The chassis numerical incrementation was not always sequential.
The series number identification du blackjack regles jeu stock were ordered in bulk and fixed at random on the vehicles when leaving the production line.
It often left gaps in the numbering sequence.
For instance, on February 29, 1988 a gap of more than 17,500 numbers existed between cars carried on the last truck leaving the Levallois plant.
Furthermore the official end of this last French line had been observed on February 19.
This confusion began in 1948: the first six 2CVs received in succession the chassis numbers 000 007, 000 002, 000 005, 000 003, 000 348 and 000 006.
Thus it is not possible to locate precisely the assembly date of the ultimate chassis numbers displayed: KA 366 694 Great BritainKA 359666 BelgiumKA 375 563 GermanyKA 376 002 France and 08KA 4813 PT Portugal.
In all a total of 3,867,932 2CV sedans were produced.
Including the commercial versions of the 2CV, Dyane, Méhari, FAF, and Ami variants, the 2CV's underpinnings spawned 8,830,679 vehicles.
The 2CV was outlived by contemporaries such as the Mini out of production in 2000VW Beetle 2003Renault 4 1992still in production as of 2010 and Hindustan Ambassador originally a 1950sstill in production as of 2010.
Continued popularity - rebirth?
The 2CV was relatively popular in Japan at this time.
The car was introduced at the Tokyo Motor Show, along with theand was built from 1989 until 1992 by Pike Factory for Nissan.
It was based on the K10.
Approximately 12,000 were manufactured.
All S-Cargos are right-hand drive.
Although initially marketed only in Japan, S-Cargos have spread as grey market import vehicles.
The or Composite Concept Vehicle developed in the mid-1990s is a concept car developed to illustrate new means of construction suitable to developing nations.
The car is a tall, fairly roomy four-door sedan, of modest dimensions.
The designers at Chrysler note they were inspired to create a modernised Citroën 2CV.
The company Sorevie of was building 2CVs until 2002.
The cars were built from scratch using mostly new parts.
But as the 2CV no longer complied with safety regulations, the cars were sold as second-hand cars using chassis and engine numbers from old 2CVs.
The 2CV-Méhari Club Cassis also reconditions the 2CV and the.
Recently they entered a 2CV prototype in the Paris-Dakar Rally; this was a four-wheel drive, twin-engine car like the 2CV Sahara powered by two 602 cc engines, the traditional one in the front and an engine in the rear boot space.
The long-running 2CV circuit racing series organized by The Classic 2CV Racing Club continues to be popular in the UK.
Styling of the and Pluriel included motifs reminiscent of the 2CV design.
In 2009 Citroën showed in the 2009 Frankfurt Motor Show thethe design of which was inspired by the 2CV.
Citroën Belgium was enthusiastic about this model and decided to produce it as an official Citroën 2CV in its Forest near Brussels factory.
They manufactured about 50 bodies and added the model called 2CV "Radar" on the price list.
They were assembled on order, but in 1958 and 1959, only 25 were sold and production ceased.
The remaining bodies were destroyed later.
There are five or six of them left, one in the Netherlands and four or five in Belgium.
Coupé Bijou Blackjack double down pulling tractor was built at the Citroën factory in Slough, UK in the early 1960s.
It was a two-door fibreglass-bodied version of the 2CV designed by Peter Kirwan-Taylor.
The design was thought to be more acceptable in appearance to British consumers than the standard 2CV.
It was also more expensive than the Austin Mini, which was more blackjack double down pulling tractor />Only 207 were built.
One was mounted in the front driving the front wheels and one in the back driving the rear wheels.
A single gearstick, clutch pedal and accelerator were connected to both engines.
It was originally intended for use by the French colonies in Northern Africa.
As well as a decreased chance of being stranded, it provided four-wheel drive traction with continuous drive to some wheels while others were slipping because the engine transmissions were uncoupled.
Therefore it bedava online blackjack oyna popular with off-road enthusiasts.
Between 1958 and 1971, Citroën built 694 Saharas, but only 27 are known to exist today.
British journalist Paul Walton flew to Israel to drive one of the 27 examples left, in the desert for the April 2000 issue of Classic Cars magazine.
The was also built as a 4x4, but with only one engine.
Various 4x4 conversions were built by independent constructors, such as Marc Voisin, near Grenoble, some from a Méhari 4x4 chassis and a 2CV body.
In opinion blackjack speed fill home depot was UK, Louis Barber builds single engined four wheel drive 2CVs.
In the late 1990s, from BBC Top Gear tested one against a Landrover Defender off road.
Although the terminology is sometimes confused, 2CV 4x4 generally refers to these models, whereas 2CV Sahara refers to the two-engined Citroën vehicle.
Another very different double front ended, four wheel drive but not at the same time2CV the 1952 Citroën Cogolin was built for the French Fire Service - The Sapeur-Pompiers.
Boot Extensions Some late model owners fitted "hunchbacks", an extension to the.
This used the original boot lid, but in a horizontal position with the extension underneath, unlike the 1950s equivalent, which had a curved boot lid reminiscent of a post-war "big boot" Traction Avant.
There was widespread production of similar 2CV-based vehicles in a large number of countries, including Iran Baby-Brousse, Jyane-MehariVietnam DalatChile YaganBelgium VanClee entertaining cosmopolitan video blackjack share, Spain, Portugal and others.
Vanclee Mungo Rear Kit cars and Specials The 2CV's availability, platform chassis construction, low cost and propensity to rust make it an ideal donor car for a special or.
Examples of 2CV-based kit sports cars include the Pembleton, BlackJack Avion and the from Britain, and and Patron from the Netherlands.
Most are also available as three wheelers single wheel at the rearlike an early sports car.
Some have been fitted with larger air-cooled twin cylinder motorcycle engines.
For transportation purposes, some saloon models were rebuilt into vans using glassfibre reconstructions of corrugated 2CV Fourgonnette rear box sections.
The 'Bedouin' was a flat panel wooden bodied kit car, that was a spin off from the ill-fated 'Africar' project.
It had similarities in looks, to the Citroën Pony and Citroën FAF, CKD locally built cars.
Channel 4 - Equinox.
Citroën 2CV Ultimate Portfolio, 13.
Citroën 2CV Ultimate Portfolio.
Citroën 2CV Ultimate Portfolio P.
Sport Heft 13 1996: Seite 58—65.
The Car's the Star.
CITROEN - Unorthodox Suspension", MOTOR magazine.
Citroën 2CV Ultimate Portfolio P.
Czech with English subtitles.
The original article was at.
The list of authors can be seen in the.
Blackjack Doubledown pulling in Charlotte, MI Fri July 17th
2015 Pull Results Dubuque, IA - Pull Results Dubuque County NTPA. Pro Stock Tractors. 1.. Mike Schultz Blackjack Double Down 282.740
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